Vellore is a Sprawling city and the administrative headquarters of Vellore District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Vellore is also one of The Smart city In India. Vellore Is a Industrial And Educational And Medical Hub of Tamilnadu. Located on the banks of the Palar River in the north-eastern part of Tamil Nadu. Vellore City is the home of two of India's top ten educational institutions, Christian Medical College & Hospital and VIT University. It is also a major centre for medical tourism in India.
Vellore has a blend of heritage and culture reflecting the ancient Dravidian civilization. It was the seat of the Pallavas, Cholas, Nayak, Marathas, Arcot Nawabs and Bijapur Sultan Kingdoms. Vellore was once the capital city of the Vijayanagar empire during 1606-1672. The fort in Vellore was described as the best and strongest fortress during the Carnatic War in the 17th Century. The monuments found in the district give a vivid picture of the evolution of the city through the ages.
In the centuries before India's independence there were many changes in kingdoms of the south and their capitals. The north and south regions of Arcot came into the political map in 1810 at the time of the last Mughal Emperor. Later in 1908, the two districts, namely North and South Arcot, came into existence. Chittoor (now in Andhra Pradesh) was the first capital of the North Arcot district. From then on it was the principal military base of the British. In 1911, Vellore became the head quarters of North Arcot Dt., comprising Vellore and Thiruvannamalai.
The name is said to have originated from Vel which is the main weapon of the Hindu deity Murugan or 'Velayudayaan' (one who bears the spear). The word then literally means - The place of Murugan. The name Vellore is derived from the Tamil words Vel meaning City of Spears. Ancient history shows that Vellore was a battle field where the warriors used to fight was left with abandoned weapons like spears. The name Vellore is also said to have been derived from some form of precious stone which had a similar sounding name. There is megalithic proto-historical evidence in and around Vellore of such a semi-precious stone industry being prevalent in ancient times.
The Vellore Revolt of 1806 was the earliest recorded uprising against British rule in India and is widely considered as the actual "First War of Independence" though it is also considered to be the "Meerut Sepoy Mutiny". Vellore District had always been at the forefront in the struggle for freedom. The Sepoy Revolt of 1806 AD that broke out inside the Vellore fort against the British authority is considered to be a prelude to the Great Revolt of 1857. A pillar commemorating the revolt has been installed in front of the fort and a monument in memory of the fighters is to be built at another location in the city
Vellore is located at 2.93°N 79.13°E . It has an average elevation of 216 metres (709 ft).
The city is 200 metres above sea level, situated 130 km North West of Chennai and 180 km East of Bangalore. Vellore is on the plains surrounded by low, rocky hills. Temperature ranges from as low as 10°C in the winter months of December–February to even 43°C in the summer months of April–June. It is essentially a dry climate, rainy and humid only at the times of the two monsoons: June–August and October–December.
Unlike other tier-III cities of India, the area of Vellore is considerably high, though it has a population well below 900,000, city total area spans across 55 km.